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Hybrid Urban and Indoor


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The transition between urban and indoor propagation scenarios is very important for

  • the penetration of buildings (also multi-floor buildings)
  • the analysis of the interference between indoor and outdoor transmitters

WinProp offers a very flexible interface to handle the transition from urban to indoor and vice versa.


A polygonal cylinder around the walls of the indoor database is automatically determined which includes all indoor walls (see figure).

  • The material properties of this cylinder can be defined by the user and are used in the urban propagation models
  • Urban propagation models consider only the cylinder.
  • Indoor propagation models consider only the walls inside the cylinder.
  • The cylinder is transparent for the indoor models (rays are transmitting the cylinder without any attenuation) and the cylinder is not considered (for reflection or diffraction) during the computation of the indoor prediction
  • The cylinder itself represents the interface between the urban and the indoor models: All rays reaching the cylinder are passed between the different propagation models (from urban to indoor and vice versa). This can be done multiple times during a propagation run (rays penetrating the building and leaving it again...)
  • Different resolutions can be defined inside and outside the cylinder
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Schematic figure of the shape

Adaptive resolution guarantees the best resolution for each environment


Combined urban/indoor database.

The urban databases and indoor databases of the well-known urban and indoor propagation models can be used. No special databases are required. The only task for the user: Import the indoor building database (used for the indoor propagation models) with WallMan into the urban building database. All other tasks are automatically handled by WinProp. The number of CNP buildings to be imported into the urban database is not limited by WinProp. You can add as many CNP buildings as you want (perhaps only the RAM or hard disk space might limit the total number..).  

Supported Propagation Models

The following propagation models are supported:

  • 3D Intelligent Ray Tracing
  • Dominant Path Model (CNP Module)
  • COST 231 Walfisch-Ikegami / Multi-Wall

Sample Predictions

Some sample predicitons for the Urban/Indoor Combined Network Modules are shown below. Please click on the images to enlarge them.

Transmitter located on a neighbour building of the CNP building
Transmitter located on a neighbour building of the CNP building
Transmitter is located inside the CNP building
Transmitter located on a neighbour building of the CNP building

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Campus area with indoor and outdoor transmitters

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Large prediction area with the Dominant Path Model

Prediction on multiple heights inside a CNP building (Tx is located outside)

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