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HUMOS - An FE Model for Advanced Safety and Comfort Assessments
Biomechanics modelling is becoming increasingly accepted as a tool for enhance assessment of vehicle safety, in particular in the field of injury assessment and virtual testing. Firstly, a generic RADIOSS model for safety applications (HUMOS2) is presented and applications are demonstrated. Important tools associated with the scaling, and positioning of the model is also described. Secondly, an innovative model for scaling of human organs (individualization) is presented. The method which employs optimization techniques, identifies critical (optimal) anatomical control points which allow for a best scaled model of the HUMOS2 representing an individual. Finally, some remaining challenges for future human models are discussed and solution paths are described.

The Application of Process Automation and Optimisation in the Rapid Development of New Passenger Vehicles at SAIC Motor
As a relatively young automotive company, SAIC Motor has drawn on the expertise of its UK Technical Centre to help in its objective to bring a new range of vehicles to market in an aggressive time frame. CAE has formed an integral part in doing this and the UK technical centre has worked closely with Altair Product Design amongst others to utilise its Engineers’ skills as well as the Hyperworks suite of software.

The paper aims to showcase what has been achieved to date, on the Roewe 550 medium car programme - currently on sale in China - and on another current vehicle programme, where processes have been developed further. Several interesting optimisation examples are highlighted in the development of the body structure as well as some key process improvement methodologies which have been jointly developed between SAIC and Altair to streamline the design process.

Evolutionary Design in Chassis Technology
This paper details the use of the Thyssenkrupp eDICT process for the design of sheet metal chassis components. eDICT (evolutionary design in chassis technology) is an innovative structured process flow for the design of optimal structures. eDICT uses the optimisation capability of Optistruct with a set of custom tools to guide and translate a design into a production feasible sheet metal solution. Fundamentally it reverses the usual design loop of CAD first then CAE assessment. The function is used to determine the design and the form follows. On recent projects eDICT has produced 25% mass reductions compared to the current series design. eDICT is also able to reduce development times and resource with an efficient solution production right from the outset.

Fast Tracking Rail Vehicle Design
Bombardier Transportation UK offers one of the most comprehensive and diverse rail vehicle portfolios in the world. The strategy is one of continuous development that provides the most effective and cost-efficient rail solutions for today and the future. A key ingredient is the use of Altair HyperWorks enterprise computer aided engineering (CAE) solution. Altair's technology is now present at every stage of the design process and has increased the efficiency of the product development process. The paper details how Altair tools have been used to generate Finite Element (FE) models of carbodies, bogies and secondary structures in reduced time scales. Significant weight and cost savings are achieved through structural optimisation of components such as large steel castings, aluminium extrusions and steel fabricated structures which are subjected to linear static, fatigue and abuse loading. Automated post processing facilitates the interpretation of results and the writing of detailed official reports.

Targeting Composite Wing Performance – Optimising the Composite Lay-Up Design
This paper shows how Altair OptiStruct, part of the HyperWorks suite, is used to provide a complete solution when designing with laminated composites, taking the design through concept stages to producing the final ply lay-up sequence. The technology is applied to the design of a laminated wing cover to produce a mass optimised design which meets the requested structural targets.

Composite Optimisation of a Formula One Front Wing
This paper will show the application of a 3-stage approach to designing the optimum composite structure for a front wing on a Formula One car using Altair OptiStruct 9.0 Continual development of aerodynamic components is normal practice in the world of Formula One and the time taken to respond is paramount if a team is to be competitive.

Application of Optimisation Tools to the Design of Advanced Carbon Fibre Bicycle: FACTOR 001
FACTOR 001 is the result of a creative project by BERU f1systems to explore the transfer of design approaches, technology and materials from Formula One to a groundbreaking training bicycle. The design brief did not require the bicycle to comply with existing technical regulations, which resulted in great freedom during the design process. This paper details how OptiStruct Optimisation tools were used to help generate efficient lightweight solutions for the design of complex carbon fibre components. Free-size optimisation was used to generate laminate boundaries, ply thicknesses and fibre directions, which met stress and displacement requirements. Physical testing carried out on manufactured parts highlighted the accuracy of the FE models and demonstrated the advantages of incorporating OptiStruct Optimisation tools in the design process.

Multi-Disciplinary Design of an Aircraft Landing Gear with Altair HyperWorks
NAFEMS invited several software vendors to a roundtable in 2007 to demonstrate their best processes in the design of a
realistic aircraft landing gear system. (Figure 1). The emphasis was on simulation processes that can make problem solving innovative, accurate and efficient. This paper explains the
processes followed by engineers at Altair and should help increase awareness regarding the powerful tools available for solving realistic design problems.

Simulating the Suspension Response of a High Performance Sports Car
The use of CAE software tools as part of the design process for mechanical systems in the automotive industry is now commonplace. This paper highlights the use of Altair HyperWorks to assess and then optimize the performance of a McLaren Automotive front suspension system. The tools MotionView and MotionSolve are used to build the model and then carry out initial assessments of kinematics and compliance characteristics. Altair HyperStudy is then used to optimize the position of the geometric hard points and compliant bush rates in order to meet desired suspension targets. The application of this technology to front suspension design enables McLaren Automotive to dramatically reduce development time.

A New Approach to Optimizing the Clean Side Air Duct Using CFD Techniques
An integrated approach to CFD design optimization is proposed. It consists of taking an initial CAD design, meshing it using HyperMesh, analysing it using Star-CD, parameterising its key features using HyperMorph, and then shape optimizing it using HyperStudy. This approach has been applied here to the shape optimization of the compressor inlet duct of a turbo system.

Delivering World Class Chassis Design
This paper details the extensive use of CAE optimisation technology at ThyssenKrupp Automotive Tallent Chassis Ltd (TKA). There are a number of trends in the automotive business that are presenting great challenges, these include severe cost pressures from OEM’s, platform commonisation and reduced vehicle development cycle time. The use of optimisation is critical for TKA to maintain its competitiveness, this paper deals with more advanced concepts of optimisation by extending into the severely non-linear region of analysis types.

A Holistic Virtual Design Process Applied to the Development of an Innovative Child Seat Concept
There is a need to minimise product development costs and provide efficient design solutions to maintain competitiveness, so increasingly companies in the Child Restraint System (CRS) industry are turning to Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) to enhance the design and development for their products. Graco has worked with Altair Engineering to develop a group 1 CRS using an advanced CAE driven design process. The design process introduces a number of key phases in the design cycle each of which are positioned to maximize the efficiency of the structure and reduce or remove the cost involved in a traditional, iterative ‘test it and see’ approach.

Development of a Lightweight SUV Frame Concept
The lightweight SUV frame project was a research initiative with the key objective to reduce the baseline frame structure's mass by 25% by applying concept design optimization upfront.

mmWave Substrate Lens Antenna for Wire Communications
Wu et. al. [1] proposed designs for both single and multi-beam mmWave circularly polarized substrate lens antennas in 2001. This white
paper demonstrates these designs via FEKO modeling.

mmWave Axial Choke Horn Antenna with Lens
Millimeter wave (mmWave) antennas operate in the band of frequencies where the wavelength is between 10mm and 1mm. The frequency
range for mmWave application is thus constrained to be greater than 30 GHz, but less than 300 GHz. Various applications exist in
this frequency range, including wide band telecommunication and imaging applications for security screening. This white paper
demonstrates how an antenna was designed for communication at 60 GHz.

Numerical Methods in FEKO
FEKO offers a wide spectrum of numerical methods and hybridizations, each suitable to a specific range of applications. Hybridization of numerical methods allows large and complex EM problems to be solved.

FEKO for Rotorcraft
FEKO is well-suited for rotorcraft electromagnetic applications including antenna placement, rotor blade modulation, co-site interference,
electromagnetic interference (EMI), electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and radar cross section (RCS).

Automotive Radars - Antenna Design, Integration & Channel Modeling
One of the key enabling technologies in the development of autonomous vehicles is driving aid radar systems. We will highlight some of the typical challenges experienced during the design and integration of automotive radars, as well as the applicable numerical solutions that FEKO offers. Radar channel modelling with WinProp is also presented.

Reflector Antenna with Circular Horn Feed — Analyzed with Ray Launching Geometrical Optics (RL-GO)
FEKO includes several computational methods for the efficient analysis of different antenna types. Here, a large problem is solved with the
full-wave and asymptotic methods. Model decomposition is used to simulate the problem more efficiently.

From Radar Waves to Road Safety
From the moment radar was first invented, it has proved its value in collision avoidance - first at sea, then in the air and later on the road. This white paper gives an overview of the development that has taken place.

Defence or Civil Radar – it’s a Matter of Wave Propagation
Radar development was essentially motivated by military needs during the second world
war, where radar use founded dozens of applications for instance navigation, aircraft location, enemy ship detection, anti-collision, and weather forecast.

This white paper discusses the design challenges faced and the solutions available.


Antenna Design Methodology for Smartwatch Applications
Smart devices have touched and enhanced all aspects of our lives, from the way we conduct business to the way we relax at the end of the day. Designing antennas for wearble devices presents a unique set of challenges. In this technical article from Microwave Journal, these issues are discussed.

Resource Scaling for Antenna Placement Modeling on a SAAB JAS-39 Gripen Aircraft
This white paper demonstrates how resource requirements scale for the computational electromagnetic modeling of a modern fighter aircraft when the frequency increases. It also demonstrates how different simulation methods may be applied and how they scal relative to each other

Cross-Coupling between a 3G Transmitter & a Cable Bundle
This white paper demonstrates how the cable modeling interface in FEKO was used to compute cross-coupling effects between a cable bundle and 3G antenna mounted on a vehicle.

Cable Harness EMC/EMI: Cross Talk, Radiation, Interference & Susceptibility
Bundles of electrical cables in vehicles, aircraft, ships and buildings pose electromagnetic compatibility and interference challenges to the
electrical design engineer. Due to their lengths, they are more likely to radiate or pick up irradiation than many other electrical components
and systems. Through several examples, this white paper will discuss how those challenges can be met with the aid of electromagnetic
simulation.

How to use FEKO with HyperMesh
This document applies to FEKO 14.0 and HyperMesh 14.0.
Users who would like to make use of the benefits of the advanced meshing features of HyperMesh while solving the electromagnetic aspects of the problem in FEKO, have several options to transfer the mesh from HyperMesh to CADFEKO. This document provides the recommended options and a brief description of how to complete the model setup in CADFEKO.

Radar Cross Section of Aircraft with Engine Inlets
At radar frequencies, 1GHz and above, asymptotic methods are usually preferred to calculate the radar cross section (RCS) of targets like aircraft, since the main parts of the target are more than an order of magnitude larger than the wavelength. The challenge is how to combine these methods to compute the RCS. In this white paper the two-step method that obtains accurate results in limited time is detailed.

Combining Near-Field Measurement and Simulation for EMC Radiation Analysis
Electronic components are required to comply with the global EMC regulations to ensure failure free operation. Currently, EMC
measurements in certified institutes are mandatory to certify performance complies with regulations.This paper describes a practical method of combining near-field measurements and simulations to explore the radiation behavior of
electronic components.

Design and Analysis of a Proximity Fuse Antenna for an Air Defence Missile
This white paper is an example of how Antenna Magus can be used to generate antennas for antenna placement studies in FEKO.

Metamaterials in FEKO
A description of how metamaterials may be modeled in FEKO followed by guidelines regarding the different simulation options.

Bowtie Antenna
This paper illustrates that FEKO can be applied to the simulation of planar antennas with bowtie antennas as an example.

Conformal Multi-Band Patch Antenna
Simulating the Planar and Curved Antennas in FEKO

Two Arm Spiral Antenna
A two-arm self-complementary archimedean spiral antenna is modelled in FEKO to determine its wideband behaviour.

Modeling of a Magic Tee Waveguide Coupler
A short depiction of FEKO‘s waveguide capability with a magic T coupler as example.


Advanced Radar Cross Section (RCS) Visualization with POSTFEKO and Lua Scripting
This white paper demonstrates how Lua scripts in POSTFEKO may be used to produce advanced visualizations of RCS data that was
computed in FEKO.

A Thin, Low-Profile Antenna Using a Novel High Impedance Ground Plane
The size of the antenna for a given application does not depend purely on the technology but on the laws of physics where the antenna size
with respect to the wavelength has the predominant influence on the radiation characteristics.

Horn-Fed Reflector Antenna
A horn-fed parabolic reflector is modeled in FEKO to determine its radiation pattern.

Cassegrain and Gregorian Reflector Antenna Modeling with MLFMM LE-PO Hybrid Solvers
This white paper demonstrates that the MLFMM-LE-PO hybrid formulation is a very efficient and accurate method for analysis of large
reflector antennas.

Microstrip Bandpass Filter
A microstrip bandpass filter is modeled in FEKO to determine its S-parameters.

Designing an LTE Base Station Antenna with the Finite Arrays Method
This white paper demonstrates how an LTE base station antenna may be modeled with the finite arrays (DGFM) method in FEKO.

Modeling & Analysis of Anechoic Chambers
A white paper demonstrating how FEKO models were used during the design stages of an anechoic chamber that operates in UHF ranges.

MRI Birdcage Coil Design
An application note on the modelling of a 7T MRI birdcage headcoil in FEKO.

Probe-Fed Stacked Annular Ring Antenna
This example illustrates how a probe fed stacked annular ring antenna may be simulated in FEKO.

Radar Cross Section (RCS) Measurement and Simulation of Generic Simple Shapes
RCS targets including the NASA almond, ogive, double-ogive, cone-sphere and cone-sphere with gap were constructed and the RCS was simulated. Simulation data is compared to measured data in open literature.

ADAS Simulation Under Severe Vibrations
Automotive radars are becoming standard equipment on vehicles. Their purpose is to adjust the distance between vehicles and/or alert the driver when dangerous situations arise. Several antenna architectures are used to cover the different safety functions in complex bumper/car chassis environment where the side
effects become more and more significant on the radar performances. Hence, automotive radar integration process becomes a very important
topic. Weak radar integration will generate gain loss, high side lobes levels and angular errors. Those degradations will impact the radar range,
the main radar axis (BSE) and the radar detection quality (resolution, ambiguity, discrimination).

Cobot, the Collaborative Robot - Get Ready for Industry 4.0
Development tools and methods, such as simulation, are increasingly important to face and address the pressure of innovation. As an example, for successful new design methods and to show how simulation tools are used, Altair developed a virtual demonstrator based on a cobot application. This complex machine interacts with a human operator as the ultimate smart manufacturing equipment - to show how challenges in modern product design can be overcome.

A shell facet model for preliminary design of cylindrical composite structures
The laminated composite lay-up design typically involves trade-offs between material selection, thickness of the layer, orientation of the layers, and the stacking sequence. Finding the right structural concept early in the design process leaves resources for the detailed design. Many structural members made of laminated composite materials have the form of thin walled cylindrical shells that are prone to buckling. Thus it is desirable to find structural designs that satisfy global requirements for structural stability early in the design phases. In this work, thin-walled cylindrical composite shells under different loading conditions have been studied for structural stability. The simulation is performed with a shell facet model implemented in the ESAComp software. Preliminary design tools for structural stability of thin-walled cylindrical composite shells are demonstrated and discussed.

Design-Optimization of a curved layered composite panel using efficient laminate parameterization
Layered composites have proven essential for the successful design of high-performance space structures. The aviation industry are increasingly using more and more layered composites within commercial aircraft, replacing traditional aluminum designs, to achieve weight savings. When optimizing layered composite structures it is desirable to find design solutions that satisfy global requirements early in the design phases. Particularly because of the number of design variables associated with composite layups once models become more detailed are complex:


Preliminary design of a wing spar bonded joint PrintE-mail
Fast tools such as the ESAComp module for bonded joints can be very efficient in the preliminary design of various joint configurations. In this example we consider a tip loaded wing of a small aircraft or wind turbine blade. The wing spar carries a constant in-plane shear (Nxy), which needs to be transferred from the joint laminates to the shear web.

Using Experimental Test Data In The Analysis Of Laminated Structures
Composite material systems have relatively large variation in their measured properties. A typical approach in engineering problems is deterministic, however. Material stiffness and strength, for example, are described with single values in linear-elastic analyses. Physical dimensions of the material, structural and environmental conditions in the laminate or uncertainties in material properties, for instance, require that several discrete definitions are needed for the material specification.

Design Optimization Of A Composite Car Body
This paper describes how a carbon fiber reinforced plastic body of a future city car was optimized to minimize weight. The frame includes numerous parts, some of which have a simple constant laminate structure and some are more complex having additional local reinforcements. The body must meet the different stiffness and load carrying constraints set by the various load cases.

Design-Optimization Of Cylindrical, Layered Composite Structures Using Efficient Laminate Parameterization
For many years, layered composites have proven essential for the successful design of high-performance space structures, such as launchers or satellites. A generic cylindrical composite structure for a launcher application was optimized with respect to objectives and constraints typical for space applications. The studies included the structural stability, laminate load response and failure analyses. Several types of cylinders (with and without stiffeners) were considered and optimized using different lay-up parameterizations. Results for the best designs are presented and discussed.

Engineering oriented formulation for laminate lay-up optimization
The concept of elementary laminates is used to formulate the design problem for a
laminated composite structure. A parameterized laminate is divided into stacks with periodic patterns of elementary laminates. With elementary laminates desired regularity for the laminate lay-ups is achieved, which is practical for multi-layer laminates. Due to the reduced design space solution time can be considerably reduced. Two laminate lay-up formulation concepts are presented and their performance is evaluated. The design problem used as a reference case involved the optimization of the stacking sequences to maximize plate buckling loads using a genetic algorithm.

PROBABILISTIC LAMINATE ANALYSIS USING ESACOMP SOFTWARE
Engineering design problems include always
uncertainties such as variation in material properties or environment, incomplete statistical data to generate input, modelling and human errors. Yet, the design in general relies on single numbers obtained from engineering equations. In case of strength prediction the material strength is derived using statistical methods
and the uncertainties is included in the design value (A or B-value).

CFRP Electronics Housing for a Satellite (ESA 2005)
The drive for continuous mass reductions in spacecraft structures has promoted the use of carbon fibre reinforced plastics. CFRP has excellent specific stiffness and strength, which makes it possible to construct lightweight structures. CFRP is typically used in applications where electrical, thermal and radiation protection properties are not decisive.

Transverse shear in Laminate Analysis
This paper describes the method for transverse shear analysis to be applied in the composites design program ESAComp. The correlation of the method to the formulations used in the commercial finite element programs is presented and the results from the selected method are compared to the exact elasticity results. The results show good agreement with the exact solutions for cross-ply and unsymmetric angle-ply laminates. Symmetric angle-ply laminates create bending twisting coupling that the theory cannot accurately model.

FACILITIES IN ESACOMP FOR ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF ADHESIVE BONDED JOINTS
This paper presents a newly developed analysis and design module for adhesive bonded joints implemented in ESAComp, software for analysis and design of composite laminates and laminated structures.

Pressure vessels: The composite solution from ComposicaD and ESAComp
With composite pressure vessels foreseen as a significant industrial growth sector, Mike Skinner, from Seifert and Skinner & Associates, talks us through their approach and how the composite solution offered by ComposicaD and ESAComp provides efficient design and analysis to meet the emerging markets.

Considering large deflections in panels - ESAComp 4.4 introduces nonlinear analysis
In composite panels with large support spans, deflections are primarily due to bending. Out-of-plane shear can also play a significant role in sandwich structures. While these deformation types are considered in the typically used linear static analyses, the results are not accurate when going beyond the small deflections regime. When a panel is firmly fixed at its edges, it starts to carry loads partly like a membrane already at low load levels. The panel exhibits stress stiffening. Consequently, with an appropriate analysis approach more efficient structures can be designed.

ESAComp meets challenging marine applications
In this article we learn about ESAComp's role in the design-development of a carbon composite RIB "Rigid-hulled Inflatable Boat", the latest project from Dr. Luca Olivari, a naval architect, founder and owner of the Italian company Olivari Composites Engineering.

At the origins of delamination stresses - Free edge analysis gives insight
When you make a tensile test for [±45/0/90]s and [90/±45/0]s laminates you may observe different failure strengths. This may seem first surprising since the laminates are basically the same - only the stacking sequence is different, which should not influence on the in-plane values.

Modern organic architecture with ESAComp
ESAComp software used for the preliminary laminate analysis, to evaluate the structural component behaviour along with the development of the joint system in the Varna Regional Library

Anisogrid Payload Adaptor Structure For Vega Launcher
In the framework of a development project promoted by the European Space Agency (ESA/ESTEC), Airbus Defence & Space (EADS CASA Espacio, ECE) has designed, manufactured and tested a technology demonstrator representative of the payload adaptor (PLA) of VEGA Launcher, by using an anisogrid concept, called anisogrid payload adaptor (APA).

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