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Flat Panel Post-Buckling Analysis with Implicit Method using OptiStruct
Many commercial aircraft are designed so that fuselage skins can elastically buckle below limit load and continue to operate safely and efficiently. This design regime makes for a very lightweight semi-monocoque structure compared to a non-buckling design. Therefore, predicting the local buckling, post-buckling behavior, and failures are critical to design and optimization of this kind of structure. The local panels buckle in a combination of compression and shear. Excess compression is redistributed to surrounding axial members (frames and stringers) and shear is continued to be carried by the buckled panels via tension parallel to the buckle waves. The compression redistribution and diagonal tension put special strength considerations on all involved structural components. This post-buckling behavior and the analysis method are both called intermediate diagonal tension (IDT).

Non-Linear Optimization of Suspension Link for Optimal Performance using Altair’s OptiStruct and HyperWorks
In recent times there is a high demand for lightweight automotive components which will reduce oil consumption and emissions. The components that are under non-linear load conditions would need optimization techniques that would yield a design which satisfies all performance targets and at the same time maintains the process efficiency with respect to time and cost. The use of CAE tools such as Altair’s OptiStruct and HyperWorks allows engineers to explore various design solutions starting from concept level to matured design that meets multiple requirements simultaneously with due consideration of manufacturing methods that allows engineers to arrive at an optimal design and process.

Testing Aerial Ladders in FEA: Wind Load Standard Equation vs CFD Wind Tunnel Analysis
To design and build an aerial ladder for a firetruck, the engineer needs to accurately
determine the working loads the ladder will encounter. Some of these can be easy to
interpret such as the weight of the firefighter in the basket at the end of the ladder, or
the weight of the water being supplied to the nozzle. Other loads can be a little harder
to quantify, such as how wind affects the ladder. There are several different ways to
determine this effect, and two of those will be explored in this paper: the standard
equation (ASCE 7-10), and CFD.

Multiphysics Design Optimization Using an Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis
Optimal design methods involving the coupling of fluid and structural solutions are a topic
of active research; particularly for aerospace applications. The paper presents a coupled fluid and structure approach to topology optimization using two commercial finite element solutions; AcuSolve and OptiStruct. A gradient based method is used to minimize the compliance of a structure subject to thermal loading. The optimal material distribution to minimize compliance is computed using the Solid-Isotropic Material with Penalty (SIMP) method available in OptiStruct. A volume fraction constraint is imposed in order to iteratively reduce the parts mass. Draw constraints are used to ensure manufacturability. The thermal loading is computed iteratively using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution from AcuSolve. The optimization produces an innovative design which increases the heat rejection rate of the part while reducing the mass.

Fast contact method for speeding up solving finite element problems involving non-linear contact behavior
For large aerospace assemblies in finite element (FE) analysis problems, contact interaction between the surrounding bodies has to be established to simulate the load transferred between the components, like aircraft engine carrying bracket assemblies, spigots assemblies etc., and understand the effects of interaction between respective parts. In some cases, depending upon geometry of the assembly, the region of study may not be contact area but the stresses acting within the parts themselves. If there is no geometric or material non-linearity in such problems, a new contact formulation method known as Fast Contact can be used in these contact regions.

Design Optimization for Additive Manufacturing in OptiStruct with consideration of Overhang Angle in Topology Optimization
This paper gives a technical review and guidelines for positioning the current capabilities. Note that the following uses OptiStruct version v2018. There have been some changes to the discussed algorithms compared to previous versions. Generally, version 2017.2.3 can be used to reproduce all the presented results.

Snap-Fit Optimization for Achieving Desired Insertion and Retention Forces
Snap-fits are ubiquitous engineering features used to quickly and inexpensively assemble plastic parts. The geometric, material, and contact nonlinearities associated with snap-fit problems can present modeling challenges. Quasi-static solutions with explicit solvers are commonly used to analyze snapfits; however, OptiStruct’s nonlinear solver now possess the ability to solve these highly nonlinear problems implicitly. The first part of this study discusses an effective approach to using OptiStruct for the implicit finite element analysis of snap-fits. Once an accurate simulation model has been created, engineers typically make design changes in order to achieve desired insertion and retention forces. The second part of this study details how HyperMesh morphing and HyperStudy can be used to optimize the snap-fit design, resulting in desired insertion and retention forces while minimizing mass and ensuring structural integrity. The approach documented in this report can reduce the design time, material use, and failure rate of snap-fits used in industry.

Multi-physics Electric Motor Optimization for Noise Reduction
In an electric machine, the torque is generated by electromagnetic forces which also create some parasitic vibrations of the stator. These vibrations excite the mechanical structure on which the motor is fixed and generate sound. When designing the electric machine, this aspect has to be taken into account from the start since it depends on the harmonic content of the currents that feed the machine, on the shapes of the rotor and stator, and on the interaction of the electric frequencies with the natural mechanical modes of the structure.
To simulate this phenomenon, a coupling between electromagnetic calculations and vibration analysis has to be set-up. Some optimization procedure can also be added in order to reduce the noise.
In what follows, it is shown how Altair HyperWorks suite; specifically FluxTM, OptiStruct®, HyperMesh® and HyperStudy® products have been successfully used to perform a multi-physics optimization for noise reduction in a fuel pump permanent magnet motor.

RAMDO - HyperStudy & OptiStruct Example
This step-by-step tutorial details how to use RAMDO with HyperStudy and OptiStruct.

OptiStruct for Structural Analysis: Not Just for Optimizations Anymore
Reprint of Engineering.com article on OptiStruct as a structural analysis tool with built-in optimization capabilities

Speeding up Altair OptiStruct* Simulations with the Intel® SSD Data Center Family for PCIe*
Altair OptiStruct* provides engineers and designers with a unified solution from concept to final design by leveraging advanced analysis capabilities and novel, optimization-driven simulation. In this process, the simulation time for one optimization iteration is a critical consideration, since it affects the computational speed and scalability of the entire design process.


Less Interior Squeak and Rattle Noise Using a Simulation Driven Design Approach
In the development of new vehicles, the PSA Group aimed to detect Squeak and Rattle (S&R) problems before availability of physical testing. This led to a collaboration between PSA’s method development engineering team and Altair’s domain experts.

White Paper: One Source Solution for Short-Fiber Reinforced Materials in FEA
With use of today’s technology, FE simulation of the injection molding process is state of the art. Several unique solvers are available for this purpose. However, an appropriate coupling between the injection molding simulation and the mechanical
simulation is required.

OptiStruct is 17x faster with the latest Dell Precision Workstation
The reduction of run times up to 17X is a direct result of more powerful hardware and the more advanced algorithms in Altair’s latest software releases.

Whitepaper: A Design-Validation-Production Workflow for Aerospace Additive Manufacturing
Additive manufacturing coupled with topology optimization allows the design-and-analysis and manufacturing iterations to be reduced significantly, or even eliminated. To ensure that the part will perform as simulated, a mid-stage validation is conducted on a standardized part before creating the final products.

Global-Local Analysis Using StressCheck, HyperMesh, HyperView and OptiStruct
This whitepaper describes the workflow for combining global and local analysis in structural development using StressCheck in combination with HyperWorks.

Design and optimization of a high performance C-Class catamaran with HyperWorks
Reprint of the article published on composite solutions magazine 2/2016.

Computer Simulation's Role in Advancing Composite Aircraft Structures
Reprint of an article published on the December 2014 issue of Aerospace & Defense Technology magazine


Optimization Drive Design - A Desktop Engineering Sponsored Report
Optimize every stage of product development with an integrated workflow that democratizes simulation and analysis. In this Desktop Engineering sponsored report Altair's vision for product optimization is analyzed

Daimler - Calculation of Optimal Damping Placement in a Vehicle Interior
One of the most difficult jobs of a NVH Analyst is to sift through a seemingly endless set of results and find the key conclusions that will improve a design. Different assumptions and different subsets of data can give very different conclusions. This paper compares acoustic results calculated for a Class 8 heavy duty truck cab to choose an optimal configuration of damping material. The design was evaluated for structure and air-borne inputs, but only structure-borne inputs are considered in this paper.

Applications of Advanced Composite Simulation and Design Optimization
Usage of fiber reinforced composite material entered an new era when leading aircraft OEMs took an unprecedented step to design and manufacture essentially full composite airframe for commercial airliners. Composite structures offer unmatched design potential as the laminate material properties can be tailored almost continuously throughout the structure. However, this increased design freedom also brings new challenges for the design process and software. Moreover, as a relatively new material, composite behaviors are more complex and less fully understood by design engineers. Therefore, reliable simulation for highly complex events like bird strike and ditching can play an important role in shortening the product design cycle. This paper showcases two area of CAE tools for composite applications. On advanced simulation, bird strike simulation with Altair RADIOSS [1] is demonstrated on an aircraft underbelly fairing. On design optimization, an airplane wing structure is designed using an innovative composite optimization process implemented in Altair OptiStruct [1-3]. OptiStruct has seen increasing adoption among aerospace OEMs, as demonstrated in the Bombardier application process described in this paper.

Automotive Modal Testing Support and CAE Correlation Using Altair HyperWorks
To derive the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a given structure, the test Engineer has to decide on excitation positions that will efficiently excite all the modes of the structure in the frequency range of interest. Excitation positions are usually decided upon from experience or trial and error methods which can be time consuming and still not capture all of the modes in the selected frequency range. Using Altair HyperStudy and Radioss (bulk), Pre-test CAE analysis has been carried out to identify effective excitation positions before the commencement of modal testing, thereby significantly reducing pre-test lab time.

The Application of Process Automation and Optimisation in the Rapid Development of New Passenger Vehicles at SAIC Motor
As a relatively young automotive company, SAIC Motor has drawn on the expertise of its UK Technical Centre to help in its objective to bring a new range of vehicles to market in an aggressive time frame. CAE has formed an integral part in doing this and the UK technical centre has worked closely with Altair Product Design amongst others to utilise its Engineers’ skills as well as the Hyperworks suite of software.

The paper aims to showcase what has been achieved to date, on the Roewe 550 medium car programme - currently on sale in China - and on another current vehicle programme, where processes have been developed further. Several interesting optimisation examples are highlighted in the development of the body structure as well as some key process improvement methodologies which have been jointly developed between SAIC and Altair to streamline the design process.

Delivering Innovation and Intelligence in Product Design
Packaging designers must constantly inject innovations to attract consumers in a constantly evolving and highly competitive market. Keeping ahead of the competition by bringing new and exciting products to market faster whilst maintaining quality, presents a major engineering challenge. A new packaging development process is described, which introduces advanced automated simulation and optimization technology right from the concept development phase. Detailed predictions of primary, secondary and tertiary packaging performance are made possible through use of advanced simulation technology. Design optimization is then employed using the modelling as a virtual testing ground for design variants. The approach provides clear design direction, an opportunity for wider experimentation, helps to improve performance and reduces uncertainty in the development process.

Evolutionary Design in Chassis Technology
This paper details the use of the Thyssenkrupp eDICT process for the design of sheet metal chassis components. eDICT (evolutionary design in chassis technology) is an innovative structured process flow for the design of optimal structures. eDICT uses the optimisation capability of Optistruct with a set of custom tools to guide and translate a design into a production feasible sheet metal solution. Fundamentally it reverses the usual design loop of CAD first then CAE assessment. The function is used to determine the design and the form follows. On recent projects eDICT has produced 25% mass reductions compared to the current series design. eDICT is also able to reduce development times and resource with an efficient solution production right from the outset.

Targeting Composite Wing Performance – Optimising the Composite Lay-Up Design
This paper shows how Altair OptiStruct, part of the HyperWorks suite, is used to provide a complete solution when designing with laminated composites, taking the design through concept stages to producing the final ply lay-up sequence. The technology is applied to the design of a laminated wing cover to produce a mass optimised design which meets the requested structural targets.

Composite Optimisation of a Formula One Front Wing
This paper will show the application of a 3-stage approach to designing the optimum composite structure for a front wing on a Formula One car using Altair OptiStruct 9.0 Continual development of aerodynamic components is normal practice in the world of Formula One and the time taken to respond is paramount if a team is to be competitive.

Application of Optimisation Tools to the Design of Advanced Carbon Fibre Bicycle: FACTOR 001
FACTOR 001 is the result of a creative project by BERU f1systems to explore the transfer of design approaches, technology and materials from Formula One to a groundbreaking training bicycle. The design brief did not require the bicycle to comply with existing technical regulations, which resulted in great freedom during the design process. This paper details how OptiStruct Optimisation tools were used to help generate efficient lightweight solutions for the design of complex carbon fibre components. Free-size optimisation was used to generate laminate boundaries, ply thicknesses and fibre directions, which met stress and displacement requirements. Physical testing carried out on manufactured parts highlighted the accuracy of the FE models and demonstrated the advantages of incorporating OptiStruct Optimisation tools in the design process.

A New Approach to Optimizing the Clean Side Air Duct Using CFD Techniques
An integrated approach to CFD design optimization is proposed. It consists of taking an initial CAD design, meshing it using HyperMesh, analysing it using Star-CD, parameterising its key features using HyperMorph, and then shape optimizing it using HyperStudy. This approach has been applied here to the shape optimization of the compressor inlet duct of a turbo system.

A Holistic Virtual Design Process Applied to the Development of an Innovative Child Seat Concept
There is a need to minimise product development costs and provide efficient design solutions to maintain competitiveness, so increasingly companies in the Child Restraint System (CRS) industry are turning to Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) to enhance the design and development for their products. Graco has worked with Altair Engineering to develop a group 1 CRS using an advanced CAE driven design process. The design process introduces a number of key phases in the design cycle each of which are positioned to maximize the efficiency of the structure and reduce or remove the cost involved in a traditional, iterative ‘test it and see’ approach.

Development of a Lightweight SUV Frame Concept
The lightweight SUV frame project was a research initiative with the key objective to reduce the baseline frame structure's mass by 25% by applying concept design optimization upfront.

ADAS Simulation Under Severe Vibrations
Automotive radars are becoming standard equipment on vehicles. Their purpose is to adjust the distance between vehicles and/or alert the driver when dangerous situations arise. Several antenna architectures are used to cover the different safety functions in complex bumper/car chassis environment where the side
effects become more and more significant on the radar performances. Hence, automotive radar integration process becomes a very important
topic. Weak radar integration will generate gain loss, high side lobes levels and angular errors. Those degradations will impact the radar range,
the main radar axis (BSE) and the radar detection quality (resolution, ambiguity, discrimination).

Cobot, the Collaborative Robot - Get Ready for Industry 4.0
Development tools and methods, such as simulation, are increasingly important to face and address the pressure of innovation. As an example, for successful new design methods and to show how simulation tools are used, Altair developed a virtual demonstrator based on a cobot application. This complex machine interacts with a human operator as the ultimate smart manufacturing equipment - to show how challenges in modern product design can be overcome.

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